Vietnamization was a policy of Richard Nixon administration during the Vietnam War soon after he took his office in January 1969. The plan was to train, equip and expand South Vietnam’s forces so that they can take over more military responsibilities for their own defence, and at the same time, allowing the U.S. to withdraw its combat troops gradually.
By the time Nixon took office, the U.S. combat troops had already been fighting in Vietnam for nearly 4 years since 1965, and some 31,000 had lost their lives. Nonetheless, that military support and commitment had made little progress in beating and preventing the advancement of North Vietnam. Under fierce and intense criticism in- and outside the country, Nixon and his advisers sought a way to disengage U.S combat forces without appearing to abandon South Vietnam in the war against the Communists. They then came out with a new strategy called “Vietnamization”,
Nixon announced the strategy to the American people in a broadcast speech on November 3, 1969, in which he emphasized how his approach contrasted with the “Americanization” strategy of U.S President Lyndon Johnson (1908-73), his predecessor. In June, 1969, the first 25,000 U.S. troop were to be withdrawn from Vietnam. Another 60,000 troops would follow by the end of the year.