Buddhist Crisis

Following the 1954 Geneva Conference, Ngo Dinh Diem – a Vietnamese Roman Catholic and passionate anti-Communist, assumed leadership in Saigon after the 1955 referendum. As a member of Vietnamese Catholic minority, Diem relied deeply on the loyalty and support... Continue reading

Vietnam War Weapons

U.S. and Allies Weapons Infantry Weapon / M16 Until early 1960s, M14 was still the primary infantry weapon in Vietnam. Although accurate and powerful with its 7.62mm ammunition, M14 was heavy and unwieldy. Using 7.62mm cartridge, M14 was also... Continue reading

Gulf of Tonkin Incident

Background After taking office, President Lyndon Johnson became more concerned about the capability of Saigon government in handling the Viet Cong guerillas. In early 1964, he decided to increase military aid to South Vietnam and created more pressure on... Continue reading

Vietnam POWs

On August 5, 1964, President Lyndon Johnson ordered Operation “Pierce Arrow” – the first U.S. air operation against North Vietnam in response to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. The operation’s major objectives were to destroy several North Vietnamese torpedo... Continue reading

Strategic Hamlet Program

The Rural Community Development Program In late 1950s, the Communists began to increase their activities in the South Vietnam. In December 1960, the National Liberation Front (NLF) was formed and rapidly controlled large sections of South Vietnamese countryside. Realizing... Continue reading

The Pentagon Papers

In early 1967, Robert S. McNamara, U.S. Secretary of Defense, who had been a leading proponent of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, was now frustrated with the stalemate of the Vietnam War. He desired to leave a comprehensive analysis about... Continue reading